papers klein

2020 NSB20, Tallinn

Climate Adaptation of listed buildings: An interaction between design, regulations and energy-efficiency

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 Energy retrofitting of listed buildings requires a rethink as it is economically and technically complicated to retrofit. The Technische Universität Berlin has 47 buildings with a total net floor area above 500.000 m ² in its central campus, and 60% of them are listed. In Germany, optimizing the energy efficiency of such buildings has not to fulfill the requirements of the energy efficiency regulations. On the one hand, this situation is not corresponding to the national objectives regarding climate adaptation. On the other hand, they have to be retrofitted because of issues like poor energy efficiency and user comfort, and not privileged with special regulations. However, instead of changing the regulations, it is possible to solve the problem by changing the way of thinking. In this regard, rather than retrofitting such buildings directly, a new approach has been developed where the surrounding climatic conditions are optimized. Hereby, a simulation-based concept has been developed with an external transparent envelope. This “climate envelope” creates an intermediate space between outdoor and indoor, where through controlled air movement and passive solar gains, the balance in seasonal energy efficiency can be kept economically without any implementation on the buildings according to the building thermal and CFD simulations. 

paper 2 klein

2019 BS Cairo

Simulation-based energy-efficiency retrofit of listed buildings 

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This article draws an innovative architectural solution for enhanced energy effi ciency by retrofi tting ensembles of listed buildings. A combination of various simulation tools and a self-developed feasibility tool has been used at the preliminary design stage to develop a measure at an urban scale within TU Berlin. First, a potential analysis for 48 buildings within the campus has been run using multi-zone simulations with Modelica. Afterward, with the feasibility analysis tool based on Python, called HCBC-Tool, all possible measures have been ranked at the pre-stage of this project. In conclusion, by buildings where standard measures are not feasible, alternative solutions have been developed using DesignBuilder, where not only energy-related issues both also architectural ones were considered. Additionally, energy substitution measures have been simulated with SunnyDesign to complete the concept.

proceeding 1 klein

2017 Building Simulation, San Francisco

Architectural and geometrical simplifications for multi-zone building models for urfan refurbishment projects

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This article draws a comparison between the described approach and a single-zone modelling approach with fi tted parameters. The fundamental diff erences – accuracy, simulation times, preparation eff ort – of the modelling strategies are discussed. A multi-zone approach to model existing buildings within the scope of district simulation for the implementation of refurbishment projects is presented. It incorporates the geometrical simplifi cation of the building body and rules to distribute thermal zones. Afterwards, the simulation model is generated automatically from a database that holds the building information. A case study contrasts both methods by applying them to buildings of a university campus.

paper 2 klein

2013 Climate Change and Regional Response, Dresden:

Regional Thermal Energy Network Based on Waste Energy with Desiccants: Pilot Project within a Climate Envelope

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A significant contribution to climate change adaptation can be achieved through using regional resources, which are not assessed till now; for instance through storage and using local waste energy by means of desiccants. Therefore, it is planned to build a new thermal energy network in a developing region in Berlin.
The basic principle is using the waste heat through reduction of water content within liquid desiccants. The emerging hygroscopic potential can be transported, stored and coupled to the latent heat fluxes in air. Following, it can be again regenerated through waste heat resources in the region, thus closing the cycle.
A small scale test- and demonstration unitwill be run in a prototype, so called “climate envelope”, which enables desiccant based acclimatization through solar gains and plants as heat and humidity source. Climate envelope concept bases on a transparent envelope covering the whole building and has three functions, being (1) enhancing the energy efficiency through passive use of solar energy, (2) protection from noise and air pollutants in traffic corridors and (3) additional living spaces. The prototype will be built up in the southern part of Berlin, in order to demonstrate the main technological components of climate envelopes and waste energy usage through desiccants, especially showing the perspective of using vegetation as a means of humid air production in a solar collector system and as a filter element of air and water.
The demonstration prototype will be used as an essential element for demonstrating, evaluating, and facilitating innovative and integrated low-carbon interventions in order to stimulate economic development while lowering carbon footprint through sustainable energy consumption. It will mitigate the impact of climate change and drive forward knowledge on how to create sustainable EU Cities through a systemic neighborhood approach.

proceeding 1 klein

2012 Energy Forum Bressanone, Italien:

BIG: Building Integrated Greenhouses

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This paper presents a conceptual study of townhouses with integrated greenhouses as a passive solar collector, noise control, and urban farming space in Berlin, Germany. It is based on empirical research of closed greenhouses and desiccant based air de-humidification. Liquid desiccants are used for energy capture from hot and humid greenhouse air as well as for heat accumulation, while also being involved in humidity control and waste heat recovery within the building. Firstly, in the preliminary design phase, a townhouse prototype was developed using energy simulation software. Subsequently, the effect of closed greenhouses on noise control and acclimatization were investigated with respect to the energy use of the prototype building.

The results indicate that building integrated greenhouses (BIG) may provide a more efficient option for solar space heating than state of the art solar thermal technologies. Furthermore, depending on local climatic conditions, it is possible to approximate zero-energy house standards with an accurate architectural design that includes BIG.

paper 3 klein

2010 Bausim 2010, TU-Wien, Österreich

Building Energy Performance Simulations of the Residential Houses in Mediterranean Climate: Case Study for Bodrum, Turkey

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This work results from the doctoral thesis, where residential houses in Bodrum have been analyzed energetically using the simulation software DesignBuilder. Bodrum is a characteristic city in the Mediterranean zone, and obtains optimum conditions for energy efficient design. It is under the influence of the Mediterranean climate, has hot and arid summers and mild and rainy winters.

The results have been evaluated in order to optimise the thermal behaviour of the houses for future settlements. Prototypes according these evaluations have been developed. Finally, significantly reduced energy demand values like 13.11 kWh/m²a for cooling, and 11.32 kWh/m²a for heating have been achieved.
Dieser Artikel stellt die Ergebnisse einer Dissertation dar, wobei Wohnhäuser in Bodrum anhand der Simulationssoftware DesignBuilder energetisch analysiert wurden. Bodrum ist eine charakteristische Stadt im Mittelmeerraum und ermöglicht optimale Bedingungen zur energie-effizienten Bauweise. In der Region herrscht Mittelmeerklima mit warmtrockenen Sommern, und mild-feuchten Wintern.

Die Simulationsergebnisse wurden zur Optimierung thermischen Verhaltens der Häuser in zukünftigen Siedlungen bewertet. Prototype wurden anhand dieser Bewertungen entwickelt. Zum Schluss hat man stark reduzierte Werte wie 13.11 kWh/m²a für Kühlenergiebedarf und 11.32 kWh/m²a für Heizenergiebedarf erreicht.